Diabetes, in medical terms is known as Diabetes Mellitus. A person whose body dysfunction to carry out health digestive metabolisms due to inadequate or no production of insulin by cells of Pancreas has the condition, Diabetes. Almost, 422 million people are affected with diabetes in world.
There are three types of diabetes:
TYPE 1 DIABETES
The untreatable form of diabetes mellitus is Type 1 Diabetes since it is an autoimmune disease. Body suffers with autoimmune condition when immune system attacks its own cells confusing it with foreign body. In Type 1 Diabetes, immune system destroys pancreas cells that produce insulin for breakdown of sugar and carbs. It usually occurs in adolescence but age is no bar. This tough condition is known to affect 5-10% of world’s diabetes patients.
TYPE 2 DIABETES
When body is unable to produce enough insulin or the body cells become resistant of Insulin; it is termed as Type 2 Diabetes. This has affected approx 90% of world’s diabetes cases. Type 2 Diabetes, unlike Type 1, can be controlled and treated with stimulating and controlling medications.
This typical type of diabetes affects pregnant women. During the pregnancy, body sugar level is usually high. When glucose is not effectively transported to body cells then sugar level rises. Pancreas fail to produce that amount of insulin required which causes to shoot up the sugar level. This risks health of mother as well as child formation. 10-20% of pregnant mothers who used to consume high cholesterol or animal fat before pregnancy develop this condition.
The genetic order and hereditary factor contribute in chances of developing the Type 1 Diabetes as genes variation in human leukocyte antigen complex (HLA) is responsible for transferring the information to distinguish between body’s protein and foreign protein. However, Type 2 Diabetes is mostly due to the lifestyle and overall health of a person.
What are the Warning Signs of Diabetes?
Symptoms vary from patient-to-patient but some of the common warnings are:
- Frequent urge to pee and also getting thirstier
- Increase in appetite
- Breath smell changes to acetone-like
- Slow healing of cuts and wounds
- Pain in joints especially legs and abdomen
- Vision problem
- General fatigue and tiredness
- Sudden body weight loss
How to Diagnose Diabetes?
There are some blood tests advised to diagnose diabetes:
- Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test
If the test reports 99 mg/dl or below of plasma glucose in blood then it is normal. For the reading higher than 126 mg/dl; it confirms diabetes.
- Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
OGTT is done by testing the blood exactly after 8-hour of fasting and 2-hours of taking a 75gms glucose beverage. Normal readings are 139mg/dl or below. 140 to 199 mg/dl is considered impaired glucose tolerance. 200mg/dl and above confirms diabetes.
- Random Plasma Glucose Test
It is done on patient with glucose level higher than 200mg/dl irrespective of last meal. This test is usually done to control the sugar level in diabetic patient.
- Hemoglobin A1c Test
This is the new inclusion in diagnoses of Diabetes. For prediabetic person, the HbA1c test will have 5.7%-6.4% and for a diabetic person it is higher than 6.5%. This result gives a precise image of status of diabetes in a patient over the course of treatment.
What are the Treatment and Precautions for a Diabetes Patient?
Care and support has to be constant. The patient might feel disheartened, not willing to accept or ignore the fact that they need extra bit of attention. In fact, it gets difficult for parents of a diabetic child of gullible age when the amount of restrictions makes them to fall back in overall growth. Doctors will test and analyze the medications and treatment required but as a family simple ways to help to bring back the spirit of diabetic person.
- Take control on Diet: There are various defined diets like Mediterranean diet, Vegan diet, DASH diet, etc which promotes insulin production and are low-carbs diets.
- Exercise and loss weight: Obesity and physical inactivity are two leading cause of Type 2 Diabetes. Exercising helps to consume glucose and robust metabolism.
- Self-Monitoring: The family members overdo in name of ‘taking care’ of the patient. To make them self-sufficient, they must encourage them to take the responsibility of self-monitoring their sugar and health status.
It gets difficult yet to mentally nurture the patient to be strong and face it, is the only option. Hospitals and clinics are providing health professionals to break the myths and educate the family and patient on Diabetes.