The role of NAD+ is not only limited to cellular process that includes energy metabolism, DNA damage repair, and oxidative stress response and gene expression.
It consists of therapeutic properties because its replenishment occurs through beneficial effects against anti-aging and age-related diseases.
We will discuss here what is NAD+, how it is linked with aging and its role in enhancing the quality of life.
What is NAD+ ?
NAD is known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. It gets classified as the most potent and crucial molecule that is involved in cellular metabolism. This molecule gets categorized as the primary source behind the functioning of the cells, which include mitochondria. It helps in converting food to energy, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining DNA integrity.
It ensures the functioning of defensive genes, which helps the body fight against aging and disease.
What does NAD+ do in the body?
NAD+ helps in transferring electrons from one cellular molecule to another. It works along with NADH and participates in various metabolic reactions with electron exchange.
These types of metabolic reactions generate adenosine triphosphate, which works as an energy molecule. According to medical research, if a body lacks a sufficient supply of NAD+ levels, then inhibition of ATP production may occur. The molecule NAD+ also regulates metabolism and helps in maintaining stable chromosomes. It also helps in repairing the damaged DNA.
Why NAD+ levels decline with aging?
The fall of NAD+ levels in human beings suggests that it works as an essential factor in metabolic function. It also works effectively against age-related diseases.
In human beings, the DNA damage grows when they age. The decline in DNA damage activates the enzyme called PARP. It uses NAD+ to perform its DNA repair function. PARP divides NAD+ in this process. It is said that the depletion of NAD+ through PARP activation at the time of aging may contribute to various diseases. It has been found that in animal cellular models of diseases that include cellular stress, PARP gets activated due to DNA damage.
Many types of research have indicated that NAD+ depletion in these diseases may occur primarily because of PARP activation. The research indicates NAD+ depletion in these diseases occurs primarily due to PARP activation. It also shows the NAD+ depletion through PARP contributes to DNA damage and inflammation in diseases. Even the level of enzymes in the human being’s immune system decline as they age. It results because of the decreasing NAD+ levels in the body.
Sirtuins are another type of enzyme that uses NAD+, and they can deplete NAD+ levels in the body with aging. In addition, sirtuins play a significant role in maintaining chromosome stability. They also help in repairing damaged DNA.
How is NAD+ made?
Many scientists do believe that PARPs contribute the most to the depletion of NAD+. When cells develop NAD+ in the body, then this process is identified as biosynthesis. It includes two cellular pathways like De Novo and the salvage pathway, and both of these pathways provide perfect NAD+.
The De Novo pathway begins with an essential amino acid called tryptophan. This amino acid called tryptophan comes from food sources like meat, cheese, eggs, and fish. The conversion of tryptophan to NAD+ occurs in the aqueous part of cells called cytosol, and it remains outside the cellular components called organelles.
Its biosynthesis pathway includes naturally occurring vitamins. These vitamins are nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide riboside (NR), and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). Nictonic acid is capable of converting NAD+ through two different steps. NARPT transforms nicotinic acid into a mononucleotide in the first step. It gets referred to as NAMN. Whereas in the second step, the enzyme NMNAT can convert NAMN to nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide, which is referred to as (NAAD).
The enzyme called NAD+ synthetase can convert NAAD to NAD+. Even the biosynthesis in the salvage pathway consists of nicotinamide’s conversion to NMN. It occurs with the enzyme phosphoribosyl transferase. This enzyme is capable of converting NMN into NAD+. The NR can be converted to NMN with the action of an enzyme called NRK. Thus, the enzymatic activity of NMNAT can transform NMN into NAD+.
NAD+ is made of two nucleotides which are joined through phosphate groups. One nucleotide consists of an adenine nucleobase, whereas the other one is called nicotinamide.
Can NAD+ be classified as coenzyme or cofactor?
NAD+ is called the cofactor as well as a coenzyme. This cofactor is the non-protein compound that is needed for speeding up the reactions occurring around the enzyme. At the same time, cofactors are labeled as helper molecules that assist in biochemical transformations.
The molecule NAD+ works as a cofactor in promoting electron transfer reactions of metabolism.
It also acts as a coenzyme that binds proteins like sirtuins.
What happens when NAD+ levels get reduced within the body?
Many studies have exhibited that reduced NAD+ levels are present in the distributed nutrients conditions like obesity and aging. The reductions in NAD+ levels can bring furthermore problems linked with metabolism. These problems can cause disorders like obesity and insulin resistance.
According to scientific research, diabetes and high blood pressure are caused due to obesity. When there is a decline of NAD+ level in the body, then there is the chance that the person may suffer from cognitive impairment.
According to medical research, high blood pressure and other heart function do send damaging pressure waves to the neuron cells and may bring cognitive impairment.
When there is a decline of NAD+ level in the body, then there is the chance that the person may suffer from cognitive impairment. The medical facts have stated that NAD+ metabolism is the practical nutritional intervention that helps an individual body get protected against metabolic and other age-related symptoms.
Many scientific studies have demonstrated that supplementation with NAD+ boosters may improve insulin resistance and reduce the risk of obesity. In many mouse models of age-related diseases, the supplementation of NAD+ boosters may improve the symptoms of age-related conditions.
The primary reason why many medical experts believe that the fall of NAD+ level in the body is quite harmful lies in the fact that it can start the onset of age-related diseases. Thus, if the supplementation of NAD+ boosters can prevent the decline of NAD in the body, then there comes the chance that a body can combat metabolism disorders related to age.
The results of the decline in NAD+ levels in the body can be devastating for the human body. As it can damage DNA, regulate energy metabolism, and can bring cellular stress response.
Take A Glance On The Potential Benefits of NAD+
The coenzyme NAD+ remains an essential factor for mitochondrial maintenance, gene regulation, and for tackling aging-related symptoms in many species.
From the evidence of scientific reports, the level of NAD+ level does decline in human beings when they age.
The precursor supplementation of NAD+ exhibits the potential therapeutic strategy that combats slow aging problems and age-related diseases. The oral supplementation with NAD+ has not shown benefits related to an increase in NAD+ levels in the body. Many studies have suggested that NMN supplement helps in protecting against various diseases. Its effect rises through the rising NAD+ levels in the body. It helps in reducing obesity and do protect blood vessels from getting further damage.
Although, the restoration of NAD+ levels in the body demonstrated anti-aging effects in animal models. It also shows fruitful results in combating age-related diseases, enhances lifespan, and improves the quality of life. Some of the benefits come within the mouse disease models of Alzheimer’s disease, cognitive impairment, and neuroinflammation. The supplementation of mice with NR carries similar beneficial effects.
Sirtuins are the genes known as the “guardians of genomes” that protect organisms present in plants, mammals and helps the human body to fight against age-related diseases. When a human body undergoes physical stress like exercising and hunger, it activates metabolism to defend the body.
These genes sustain genome integrity, promote DNA repair, and exhibit anti-aging-related properties that may increase human lifespan. Many types of research have demonstrated that the rising NAD+ level in the body can activate sirtuins and may increase the lifespan in yeast, worms, and mice. Many scientific types of research have concluded that replenishing of NAD+ levels does bring promising results in animal models.
The mitochondrial function is the most crucial in human beings and is the human body’s powerhouse. The coenzyme NAD+ is responsible for maintaining a healthy body. In some studies, it is found that the increasing level of NAD+ can improve mitochondrial function in mice and other animals.
Many studies have exhibited that mice who consume NAD+ boosters are leaner and can sustain longer. Even the aged animals carry a high level of NAD+ level and can outperform their peers.
Protects Cardiovascular System
According to medical science facts, the elasticity of the arteries enacts the role of buffer between pressure waves that get passed by heartbeats. Although, in human beings, the arteries get stiffen as they age. It further contributes to high blood pressure, which is the most critical risk factor linked with heart disease.
“Did you know that in every 37 seconds, a person dies from heart disease around the world?“
It stands true and is revealed by the CDC reports of the United States of America. This is why many scientists have started to experiment with different ways of supplementing NAD+. The onset of heart disease begins due to high blood pressure that enlarges the heart, blocks arteries and strokes.
The NAD+ level boosters do bring protection to the heart and improve cardiovascular function. These boosters may replenish the NAD+ levels to the heart and prevent injuries caused by the lack of blood flow in human beings.
When human beings age, they often become prone to many neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.
Studies conducted on mice suffering from Alzheimer’s have revealed that an increase in the NAD+ level can decrease protein formation, which disrupted cell communication and increased cognitive function.
Thus, it is stated that NAD+ levels in most cases can protect brain cells, especially when there is an inadequate supply of blood.
Does NAD+ increase the lifespan?
In animal studies, it has been researched that mice who consume NAD+ boosters, NMN, and NR boosters can have an extended lifespan and healthspan.
The rise of NAD+ levels does bring a good effect on the lifespan of mice. Moreover, the NR supplementation may increase the lifespan of mice by five percent.
It also protects an individual from many age-related diseases.
How can human beings boost the NAD levels in their body?
In human beings, the NAD+ levels get increased through biosynthesis or with the help of NAD+ precursor molecules.
Right Exercise and Fasting
Many fitness experts believe a human being can lead a healthy lifestyle by following a healthy diet and enduring regular exercises. This is because it helps in boosting NAD+ levels.
Fasting can cause mild physical stress, and exercise can stimulate the production of NAD+. In micro-organisms like yeast, the calorie restriction can activate the production of NAD+ and sirtuins. A recent study on humans has revealed that aerobic and resistance exercise can restore age-dependent enzymes involved in NAD+ synthesis in muscles.
Many individuals prefer NMN and NR supplements because they boost NAD+ levels. NMN and NR get classified as biosynthesis precursors of NAD+. Both of these molecules are highly safe for human consumption also.
According to many scientists, studies conducted on animals demonstrate NR as a molecule that can boost NAD+ levels.
People should consume raw foods that contain vitamin B, such as avocados, steamed fish, and peanuts. In addition, many nutritionist experts believe that people should prefer less processed whole-grain food because they help maintain higher amounts of B vitamins.
Another alternate option to bring the slight change in dietary consumption can involve consuming fermented foods and drinks because they contain high amounts of NAD+. Moreover, these foods also ease persistent bloating and chronic joint pain.
Aging remains the major cause of human diseases but maintaining a healthy diet, fasting, and exercise may improve the quality of life. Although, it may not be the possible option for all individuals.
Therefore, the positive and fruitful effects of NAD+ mentioned in the present review and do exhibit possible ways for improving the quality of life and may delay age-related disease.